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Not until the s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban.

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Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known.

The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine , while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank.


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The image is located at In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as m ft , compared to its actual height of m ft. The U. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network France : sources, fate and modelling.

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The Seine river watershed France is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program PIREN Seine program. This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network.

The more common indicator of fecal contamination fecal coliforms was mainly used; some complementary works used E. Point sources outfall of wastewater treatment plants and non point sources surface runoff and soil leaching of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified.


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Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources especially surface runoff of pastured fields can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed Seine , Marne, Oise rivers was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters.

The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality protozoan grazing, lysis or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature.

Mortality rates of E. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris France. The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris France - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2. Potential source contribution function PSCF and conditional probability function CPF allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate A.

The A. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2. We have shown that the effluents introduce large amounts of ammonia and inoculate the receiving medium with nitrifying bacteria. The aim of the present study. The aim of the present study was. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community structure in the lower Seine River: Impact of Paris wastewater effluents.

Geochemistry of dissolved and suspended loads of the Seine River, France : anthropogenic impact, carbonate and silicate weathering.

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This study focuses on the chemistry of the Seine river system, one of the major rivers in Europe, and constitutes the first geochemical investigation of both suspended and dissolved loads of this river. The Seine river drains a typical Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin: the Paris basin, constituted of limestones mixed or interbedded with terrigenous sediments derived from the paleoreliefs bordering the Mesozoic and Cenozoic seas.

In the context of quantifying the global influence of carbonate and silicate weathering on atmospheric CO 2 consumption, the Seine river offers the possibility of examining weathering rates in a flat sedimentary environment, under temperate climatic conditions. One of the major problems associated with the Seine river, as with many temperate rivers, is pollution. We propose, in this paper, 2 approaches in order to correct the dissolved load of the Seine river for anthropogenic inputs and to calculate weathering rates of carbonates and silicates.

The first uses the dissolved load of rivers and tries to allocate the different solutes to different sources. A mixing model, based on elemental ratios, is established and solved by an inversion technique. The second approach consists in using the suspended load geochemistry. Under steady state conditions, we show that the geochemistry of suspended sediments makes it possible to estimate the amount of solutes released during the chemical weathering of silicates, and thus to calculate weathering rates of silicates.

During high floods, the contribution of atmospheric and agriculture inputs predominates. Impact of boat generated waves over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary France. Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human impact on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended.

As an example on the Seine estuary France port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated waves are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending.

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of boat generated waves on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary.

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On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements 1 measurement every minute in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels waves.

This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: i water height on the site and ii vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli wave with maximum amplitude of 0. Remanence of lead pollution in an urban river system: a multi-scale temporal and spatial study in the Seine River basin, France. A focus on the Orge River subcatchment, which exhibits a contrasted land-use pattern, allows documenting the relation between hydrodynamics, urbanization, and contamination sources.

The study reveals that the Pb contamination due to leaded gasoline that peaked in the s has a very limited impact in the river nowadays. The analysis of the bed sediments bulk and grain size fractionated highlights the diversity of the anthropogenic lead sources in relation with the diversity of the human activities that occurred in this basin over the years. Finally, a contamination mixing scheme related to hydrodynamics is proposed.

Estuarine conservation and restoration: the Somme and the Seine case studies English Channel, France. Megatidal estuaries such as the Seine and the Somme North-Western France are rather well delimited and human impacts on them are well understood. Since the middle of the 19th Century, there has been a slow but irreversible degradation of the state of these English Channel estuaries. However, current conservation and restoration strategies tend to freeze habitats in a particular state, their status being defined, most often, through a patrimonial or utilitarian approach.

In this paper, evaluation methodologies are proposed with the intention of assessing changes to ecosystem functions, under anthropogenic disturbance, controlled or otherwise. The Seine a heavily industrialised ecosystem is compared to the Somme considered here for its pseudo-natural features in order to discriminate between oceanic processes siltation and plugging of estuaries and anthropogenic influences.

Preservation and restoration of habitats rely on a robust scientific methodology. The multi-scale approach adopted in the projects presented here relies on sensitive socio-ecological assessment procedures, tools for evaluating ecological quality, and well-built monitoring programmes based upon pertinent indicators. Such managerial tools were used to refine strategies and make them compatible with the sustainable co-development of resources in a European context. This paper demonstrates how scientists were able to acquire and apply knowledge in the field of rehabilitation and restoration.

Jointly with managers and policy-makers, they have brought scientific information and socio-economics together in order to answer questions about the restoration of sites or habitats and to anticipate future propositions in the spirit of Integrated Coastal Zone Management ICZM. Contribution of heterotrophic bacterial production to the carbon budget of the river Seine France. Bacterial activity was measured in the river Seine by two methods, 3 H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and 3 H-leucine incorporation into proteins.

The covariation of both activities is demonstrated by the constancy of the molar ratio leucine to thymidine incorporation rate in the range of 6 to 8 for all the samples, except in the perturbed area where it is higher 15 to Bacterial production was calculated with experimentally determined conversion factors 0. Carbon consumption by bacteria in the area perturbed by the Ach6res effluents was calculated assuming a growth yield of 0.

In summer, an additional supply of organic matter is required to account for the intense bacterial activity, suggesting the importance of phytoplankton production in the carbon budget. Water to atmosphere fluxes of I in relation with alkyl-iodide compounds from the Seine Estuary France. This study presents an original work on measurements of stable and radioactive iodinated species in the Seine estuary France , with estimates fluxes of volatile gaseous species from water to the atmosphere.

Various iodinated compounds were identified in water and air in particular I in water, what is unusual. Concentrations and behaviour of iodinated elements in the Seine estuary seem similar to what has been observed in other European estuaries. Water to air flux of TVI for the Seine river was estimated in the range kg y Measurements of I in water varying between 0.

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Fluxes of I from water to atmosphere are in the range 2. Full Text Available Studies quantifying the impact of climate change have so far mostly examined atmospheric variables, and few are evaluating the cascade of aquatic impacts that will occur along the land—ocean continuum until the ultimate impacts on coastal eutrophication potential. Averaged responses of biogeochemical variables to climate-induced hydrological changes were assessed using climate forcing based on 12 projections of precipitation and temperature BC-CORDEX for the stabilization RCP 4.

Beyond the amount of nutrients delivered to the sea, we calculated the indicator of coastal eutrophication potential ICEP. The models run with the RCP4.